The Boston Diaries

The ongoing saga of a programmer who doesn't live in Boston, nor does he even like Boston, but yet named his weblog/journal “The Boston Diaries.”

Go figure.

Thursday, July 04, 2019

“T'was the night after fireworks, and all through the land, I can only hope, that no one lost a hand.”

It's that time of the year again when people spend vast amounts of time and money shooting off fireworks. As of now, it no longer sounds like a war zone and the smell of black powder has drifted onward. So I hope everyone had a safe Fourth of July and that this:

[Fireworks that exploded at ground level, with a capture that says, “Amateurs: There's a Reason Professionals Exist.” I still think this is one of my best photographs and I'm amazed that not only did I survive, but it came out as well as it did.]

never happened to you.

Tuesday, July 09, 2019

How can a “commercial grade” web robot be so badly written?

Alex Schroeder was checking the status of web requests, and it made me wonder about the stats on my own server. One quick script later and I had some numbers:

Status of requests for boston.conman.org so far this month
Status result requests percent
Total - 64542 100.01
200 OKAY 53457 82.83
206 PARTIAL_CONTENT 12 0.02
301 MOVE_PERM 2421 3.75
304 NOT_MODIFIED 6185 9.58
400 BAD_REQUEST 101 0.16
401 UNAUTHORIZED 147 0.23
404 NOT_FOUND 2000 3.10
405 METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED 41 0.06
410 GONE 5 0.01
500 INTERNAL_ERROR 173 0.27

I'll have to check the INTERNAL_ERRORs and into those 12 PARTIAL_CONTENT responses, but the rest seem okay. I was curious to see what I didn't have that was being requested, when I noticed that the MJ12Bot was producing the majority of NOT_FOUND responses.

Yes, sadly, most of the traffic around here is from bots. Lots and lots of bots.

Top agents requesting pages
requests percentage user agent
47721 74 Total (out of 64542)
16952 26 The Knowledge AI
9159 14 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; SemrushBot/3~bl; +http://www.semrush.com/bot.html)
5633 9 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; VelenPublicWebCrawler/1.0; +https://velen.io)
4272 7 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; AhrefsBot/6.1; +http://ahrefs.com/robot/)
4046 6 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; bingbot/2.0; +http://www.bing.com/bingbot.htm)
3170 5 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Go-http-client/1.1; +centurybot9@gmail.com)
2146 3 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MJ12bot/v1.4.8; http://mj12bot.com/)
1197 2 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; DotBot/1.1; http://www.opensiteexplorer.org/dotbot, help@moz.com)
1146 2 istellabot/t.1.13

But it's been that way for years now. C'est la vie.

So I started looking closer at MJ12Bot and the requests it was generating, and … they were odd:

And so on. As they describe it:

Why do you keep crawling 404 or 301 pages?

We have a long memory and want to ensure that temporary errors, website down pages or other temporary changes to sites do not cause irreparable changes to your site profile when they shouldn't. Also if there are still links to these pages they will continue to be found and followed. Google have published a statement since they are also asked this question, their reason is of course the same as ours and their answer can be found here: Google 404 policy.

But those requests? They have a real issue with their bot. Looking over the requests, I see that they're pages I've linked to, but for whatever reason, their bot is making requests for remote pages on my server. Worse yet, they're quoted! The %22 parts—that's an encoded double quote. It's as if their bot saw “<A HREF="http://www.thomasedison.com">” and treated it as not only a link on my server, but escaped the quotes when making the request!

Pssst! MJ12Bot! Quotes are optional! Both “<A HREF="http://www.thomasedison.com">” and “<A HREF=http://www.thomasedison.com>” are equivalent!

Sigh.

Annoyed, I sent them the following email:

From
Sean Conner <sean@conman.org>
To
bot@majestic12.co.uk
Subject
Your robot is making bogus requests to my webserver
Date
Tue, 9 Jul 2019 17:49:02 -0400

I've read your page on the mj12 bot, and I don't necessarily mind the 404s your bot generates, but I think there's a problem with your bot making totally bogus requests, such as:

//%22https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LnxSTShwDdQ%5C%22
//%22https://www.zaxbys.com//%22
//%22/2003/11/%22
//%22gopher://auzymoto.net/0/glog/post0011/%22
//%22https://github.com/spc476/NaNoGenMo-2018/blob/master/valley.l/%22

I'm not a proxy server, so requesting a URL will not work, and even if I was a proxy server, the request itself is malformed so badly that I have to conclude your programmers are incompetent and don't care.

Could you at the very least fix your robot so it makes proper requests?

I then received a canned reply saying that they have, in fact, received my email and are looking into it.

Nice.

But I did a bit more investigation, and the results aren't pretty:

Requests and results for MJ12Bot
Status result number percentage
Total - 2164 100.00
200 OKAY 505 23.34
301 MOVE_PERM 4 0.18
404 NOT_FOUND 1655 76.48

So not only are they responsible for 83% of the bad requests I've seen, but nearly 77% of the requests they make are bad!

Just amazing programmers they have!

Wednesday, July 10, 2019

Some more observations about the MJ12Bot

I received another reply from MJ12Bot about their badly written bot and it just said the person responsible for handling enquiries was out of the office for the day and I should expect a reponse tomorrow. We shall see. In the mean time, I decided to check some of the other bots hitting my site and see how well they fare, request wise. And I'm using the logs from last month for this, so these results are for 30 days of traffic.

Top 10 bots hitting The Boston Diaries
requests percentage user agent
167235 70 Total (out of 239641)
46334 19 The Knowledge AI
38097 16 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; SemrushBot/3~bl; +http://www.semrush.com/bot.html)
17130 7 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; BLEXBot/1.0; +http://webmeup-crawler.com/)
15928 7 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; AhrefsBot/6.1; +http://ahrefs.com/robot/)
12358 5 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; bingbot/2.0; +http://www.bing.com/bingbot.htm)
8929 4 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MegaIndex.ru/2.0; +http://megaindex.com/crawler)
8908 4 Gigabot
7872 3 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MJ12bot/v1.4.8; http://mj12bot.com/)
6942 3 Barkrowler/0.9 (+http://www.exensa.com/crawl)
4737 2 istellabot/t.1.13

So let's see some results:

Results of bot queries
Bot 200 % 301 % 304 % 400 % 403 % 404 % 410 % 500 % Total %
The Knowledge AI 42676 92.1 3352 7.2 0 0.0 127 0.3 4 0.0 170 0.4 5 0.0 0 0.0 46334 100.0
SemrushBot/3~bl 36088 94.7 1873 4.9 0 0.0 110 0.3 0 0.0 21 0.1 5 0.0 0 0.0 38097 100.0
BLEXBot/1.0 16633 97.1 208 1.2 124 0.7 114 0.7 0 0.0 46 0.3 5 0.0 0 0.0 17130 100.0
AhrefsBot/6.1 15840 99.4 78 0.5 0 0.0 4 0.0 0 0.0 5 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.0 15928 99.9
bingbot/2.0 12304 99.6 35 0.3 0 0.0 6 0.0 0 0.0 3 0.0 5 0.0 0 0.0 12353 99.9
MegaIndex.ru/2.0 8412 94.2 456 5.1 0 0.0 24 0.3 0 0.0 36 0.4 1 0.0 0 0.0 8929 100.0
Gigabot 8428 94.6 448 5.0 0 0.0 23 0.3 0 0.0 7 0.1 2 0.0 0 0.0 8908 100.0
MJ12bot/v1.4.8 2015 25.6 175 2.2 0 0.0 2 0.0 0 0.0 5680 72.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 7872 100.0
Barkrowler/0.9 6604 95.1 300 4.3 0 0.0 10 0.1 0 0.0 28 0.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 6942 99.9
istellabot/t.1.13 4705 99.3 28 0.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 4 0.1 4737 100.0

Percentage wise of the top 10 bots hitting my blog (and in fact, these are the 10 ten clients hitting my blog) MJ12Bot is just bad at 72% bad requests. It's hard to say what the second worst one is, but I'll have to give it to “The Knowledge AI” bot (and my search-foo is failing me in finding anything about this one). Percentage wise, it's about on-par with the others, but some of its requests are also rather odd:

It appears to be a similar problem as MJ12Bot, but one that doesn't happen nearly as often.

Now, this isn't to say I don't have some legitimate “not found“ (404) results. I did come across some actual valid 404 results on my own blog:

Some are typos, some are placeholders for links I forgot to add. And those I can fix. I just wish someone would fix MJ12Bot. Not because it's bogging down my site with unwanted traffic, but because it's just bad at what it does.

Thursday, July 11, 2019

Yet more observations about the MJ12Bot

I received a reply about MJ12Bot! Let's see …

From
Majestic <XXXXX­XXXXX­XXXXX­XXXXX­XXXXX­XXXXX>
To
Sean Conner <sean@conman.org>
Subject
[Majestic] Re: Your robot is making bogus requests to my webserver
Date
Thu, 11 Jul 2019 08:34:13 +0000

##- Please type your reply above this line -##

Oh … really? Sigh.

Anyway, the only questionable bit in the email was this line:

The prefix // in a link of course refers to the same site as the current page, over the same protocol, so this is why these URLs are being requested back from your server.

which is … somewhat correct. It does mean “use the same protocol” but the double slash denotes a “network path reference” (RFC-3986, section 4.2) where, at a minimum, a hostname is required. If this is just a misunderstanding on the developers' part, it could explain the behavior I'm seeing.

And speaking of behavior, I decided to check the logs (again, using last month) one last time for two reports.

User Agents, sorted by most requests, for June 2019
404 (not found) 200 (okay) Total requests User agent
170 42676 46334 The Knowledge AI
21 36088 38097 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; SemrushBot/3~bl; +http://www.semrush.com/bot.html)
46 16633 17130 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; BLEXBot/1.0; +http://webmeup-crawler.com/)
5 15840 15928 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; AhrefsBot/6.1; +http://ahrefs.com/robot/)
3 12304 12353 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; bingbot/2.0; +http://www.bing.com/bingbot.htm)
36 8412 8929 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MegaIndex.ru/2.0; +http://megaindex.com/crawler)
7 8428 8908 Gigabot
5680 2015 7872 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MJ12bot/v1.4.8; http://mj12bot.com/)
28 6604 6942 Barkrowler/0.9 (+http://www.exensa.com/crawl)
0 4705 4737 istellabot/t.1.13
User Agents, sorted by most bad requests (404), for June 2019
404 (not found) 200 (okay) Total requests User agent
5680 2015 7872 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MJ12bot/v1.4.8; http://mj12bot.com/)
656 109 768 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MJ12bot/v1.4.7; http://mj12bot.com/)
177 45 553 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 10.0; Windows NT 6.2)
170 42676 46334 The Knowledge AI
120 0 120 Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64; Trident/5.0)

(Note: The number of 404s and 200s might not add up to the total—there might be other requests that returned a different status not reported here.)

MJ12Bot is the 8th most active client on my site, yet it has the top two spots for bad requests, beating out #3 by over an order of magnitude (35 times the amount in fact).

But I don't have to worry about it since the email also stated they removed my site from their crawl list. Okay … I guess?

Friday, July 12, 2019

Once more with the MJ12Bot

So I replied to MJ12Bot's reply outlining everything I've mentioned so far about the sheer number of bad links they're following and how their explanation of “//” wasn't correct. They then replied:

From
Majestic <XXXXX­XXXXX­XXXXX­XXXXX­XXXXX­XXXXX>
To
Sean Conner <sean@conman.org>
Subject
[Majestic] Re: Your robot is making bogus requests to my webserver
Date
Fri, 12 Jul 2019 07:27:48 +0000

##- Please type your reply above this line -##

Your ticket reference is XXXXX. To add any comments, just reply to this email.


I can tell from your responses that you are much better than us, so we can only continue to avoid visiting your site.

Kind Regards
XXXXX

I guess this is their way of politely telling me to XXXXX­XXX. Fair enough.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Notes on blocking the MJ12Bot

The MJ12Bot is the first robot listed in the Wikipedia's robots.txt file, which I find amusing for obvious reasons. In the Hacker News comments there's a thread specifically about the MJ12Bot, and I replied to a comment about blocking it. It's not that easy, because it's a distributed bot that has used 136 unique IP addresses just last month. Because of that comment, I decided I should expand on some of those numbers here.

The first table is the number of addresses from January through June, 2019 to show they're not all from a single netblock, The address format “A.B.C.D” will represent a unique IP address, like 172.16.15.2; “A.B.C” will represent the IP addresses 172.16.15.0 to 172.16.15.255; “A.B” will represent the range 172.16.0.0 to 172.16.255.255 and finally “A” will represent the range 172.0.0.0 to 172.255.255.255.

Number of distinct IP addresses used by MJ12Bot in 2019 when hitting my site
Address format number
A.B.C.D 312
A.B.C 256
A.B 86
A 53

Next are the unique addresses from all of 2018 used by MJ12Bot:

Number of distinct IP addresses used by MJ12Bot in 2018 when hitting my site
Address format number
A.B.C.D 474
A,B.C 370
A.B 125
A 66

This wide distribution can easily explain why Wikipedia found it to ignore any rate limits set. Each individual node of MJ12Bot probably followed the rate limit, but it's a hard problem to coordinate across … what? 500 machines across the world?

It seems the best bet is to ban MJ12Bot via robots.txt:

User-agent: MJ12bot
Disallow: /

While I haven't added MJ12Bot to my own robots.txt file, it hasn't hit my site since they removed me from their crawl list, so it appears it can be tamed.

Obligatory Picture

[It's the most wonderful time of the year!]

Obligatory Links

Obligatory Miscellaneous

You have my permission to link freely to any entry here. Go ahead, I won't bite. I promise.

The dates are the permanent links to that day's entries (or entry, if there is only one entry). The titles are the permanent links to that entry only. The format for the links are simple: Start with the base link for this site: http://boston.conman.org/, then add the date you are interested in, say 2000/08/01, so that would make the final URL:

http://boston.conman.org/2000/08/01

You can also specify the entire month by leaving off the day portion. You can even select an arbitrary portion of time.

You may also note subtle shading of the links and that's intentional: the “closer” the link is (relative to the page) the “brighter” it appears. It's an experiment in using color shading to denote the distance a link is from here. If you don't notice it, don't worry; it's not all that important.

It is assumed that every brand name, slogan, corporate name, symbol, design element, et cetera mentioned in these pages is a protected and/or trademarked entity, the sole property of its owner(s), and acknowledgement of this status is implied.

Copyright © 1999-2019 by Sean Conner. All Rights Reserved.